Checkers: Swift 1.2 to 2.0 transition in numbers and impressions


In my spare time I work on a futuristic checkers game for the iPad, written purely in Swift and SpriteKit. Last week I updated the codebase from Swift 1.2 (Xcode 6.4) to Swift 2.0 (Xcode 7β5).

In this post I outline the process and give some stats about the conversion, partly to document the experience of making such a transition in a “real project”, and partly to have something to show besides the look of disapproval the next time I hear someone say “I won’t use Swift, because each time a new Xcode comes out, you have to rewrite everything“…


See the summary at the end, if you are not interested in details.


First, some context. I work on Checkers alone in my spare time. I started the Swift incarnation of the project 11 months ago (it hurt a little to find this out). I strive for “flamboyant minimalism” :wink:, therefore Checkers might seem like a small project, but I consider it a Medium on the S-M-L-XL spectrum. Before the Swift 1.2 to 2.0 conversion, Checkers consisted of:


Before β5 I had a frustrating experience with Xcode 7. It boils down to the fact that betas are not final products. They are not expected to work (well) all the time. And they don’t.

In β1 and β2, after going through automatic Swift code conversion and manual fixes, the compiler crashed on me with error messages I didn’t understand. I couldn’t quickly google workarounds for these problems, so I decided to not spend time on them, continue working in Xcode 6, and wait for another Xcode 7 beta (they come out roughly every two weeks).

β3 crashed on launch. After removing the source of the crash, I managed to get Checkers to compile, but I had to disable sound. Unfortunately, the IDE would launch the app on a device/simulator only on what seemed like every tenth try or so. Besides that issue, it would spontaneously bring up all the cores of my MacBook to 100% utilization. β3 was effectively unusable with this project.

To be fair, I suspect most of the problems I encountered were due to the fact that I make heavy use of advanced features — like closures combined with currying and custom operators in tweaks and mutate, big enum-based state machines, closure-based generic memoization, etc.

I skipped β4.

β5 fixed the problems of β3. I now use Xcode 7β5 and iOS 9 to develop Checkers. It’s overall a better experience than using Xcode 6.4, because the language is better, but the compilation time feels a little bit longer to me. I didn’t measure it, though.

Before I start describing the 6.4→7β5 transition steps, I’ll mention one problem I had with β5. After launching the Xcode beta, socketfilterfw would take 100% of the CPU for about 3 minutes. This was a large inconvenience for me because of my workflow, which includes often Xcode restarts: I commit often and arrange work-in-progress commits using git rebase --interactive. Each time I do this, I quit Xcode, because for as long as I remember, it handled such changes horribly: it messes up working directory, or worse, brings Derived Data to an inconsistent state, which results in reproducible-only-on-this-machine compile-time, or even worse, run-time bugs.

In my case, the “firewall is trying to set my desk on fire when I launch Xcode 7” issue was fixed by removing Xcode from a list in firewall options. (And restarting. Restarting helps. I habitually delete Derived Data and restart everything within the 3 meter radius to fix Xcode issues of all kind, beta or not…)

Automatic conversion

The whole transition of the project from Xcode 6.4 to 7β5 took about two hours, of which the automatic conversion was the fastest — it took about half an hour to run, verify changes, manually fix remaining issues, and do some cleanup.

The most time-consuming part was an optional step of adopting new language features, which I describe in separate sections.

Before automatic conversion, I had 7008 lines of code. The conversion diff has 109 deletions and 113 insertions, which means Xcode automatically took ~1.5% of the project and replaced it with new code.

Manual cleanup

After automatic conversion to Swift 2, the project would not compile, because some changes were needed, which could not be performed automatically.

My “fix errors and warnings” commit has 90 deletions and 84 insertions — change to ~1.5% of the code, including s/var/let/ in 30 lines.

To finalize the conversion, before using new features, I manually reverted changes to functions with multiple arguments — by default argument names were not used when calling functions in Swift 1.2 and they got added in Swift 2.0. I removed them where I didn’t want them. 25 deletions and insertions, ~0.5% change.

enum representation

The first new feature I wanted to use, because it was obvious where to apply it, were default string representations of enum cases. I use enumerations in state machines and need their representations when generating diagrams.

The change was trivial but sound in terms of the number of lines of code: 167 deletions, 26 insertions. A ~2% decrease in the vein of:

+extension DOTLabelable {
+    var DOTLabel: String {
+        return "\(self)"
+    }

-extension SquareNodeState: CustomStringConvertible {
-    var description: String {
-        switch self {
-            case Initial:               return "Initial"
-            case Invisible:             return "Invisible"
-            case AnimatingIn:           return "AnimatingIn"
-            case Idle:                  return "Idle"
-            case AnimatingHighlighting: return "AnimatingHighlighting"
-        }
-    }


The next feature I was eager to use was guard. It reduces nesting and removes instances of force-unwrapping optionals.

In terms of the number of lines it doesn’t help much. In my case it lead to a slight increase (80 deletions, 84 insertions) as I experiment with laying out the statement vertically:

guard let
    s1 = previousSnapshot,
    s2 = snapshot,
    sprite = originalSprite,
    body = sprite.physicsBody
else {

if case

if case is a good replacement for a switch with a single case and a default clause. I don’t use pattern matching outside of enums (yet?), so my diff is rather small. 31 deletions, 14 insertions:

if case .Idle = currentState {
    originalSprite?.physicsBody?.dynamic = false

// etc.

for where

for where feels weird. Sometimes I think .filter would fit better. Definitely it looks bizarre when I’m left with a for loop containing only a return statement. But maybe this is a hint from the language designers that I should use .lazy.filter{}.first there…? Maybe…?

34 deletions, 26 insertions.

Other features

Error handling is the elephant in the room. I don’t use it because I don’t think I have operations that could fail in a way that I could recover from. (I don’t have networking.)

I searched for occurrences of ($0) and started using things as if they were functions: .map(Foo.init) instead of .map(Foo($0)), etc. 3 deletions, 3 insertions.

I removed explicit raw values from string enumerations. I had only one such enum with only two cases, so 2 deletions, 2 insertions.

defer seems like a good idea, but so far I use it in only one place:

// not actual Checkers source (but close)
var nextFragments: [PiecePolygonSpriteNode] {
    defer { i = (i + 1) % xs.count }
    return xs[i]

This closes the list of changes specific to the Swift 1.2 to 2.0 transition.


Betas are problematic. I had to wait for β5 to be able to work on Checkers using Swift 2. (Or β4. I didn’t check β4.)

By β5, updating was fast and easy. In my project of ~7000 lines of code, ~60 files, and ~70 types, automatic conversion affected ~1.5% of the codebase. Manual tweaks/cleanup touched similar amount of code. Together they took ~30 minutes.

Refactoring to adopt new language features took ~1.5 h and resulted in ~2% less code. The change in the number of lines of code was mostly due to my use of enums with descriptions, though.

I recommend updating from Xcode 6.4 to 7 today, because a) it can be actually done now because things work, and b) Swift 2 is better, has guard, protocol extensions, and other nice additions. By now you should update anyway to test on iOS 9.

PS When I finished writing this, I had an idea to check how the transition looks like in terms of the number of characters in the source code instead of the number of lines. I don’t want to redo calculations for each step, but before the transition I had 226790 characters and afterwards I had 6396 less. A ~3% decrease.

Checkers series

Game's website